Colposcopy is a way for your doctor to use a special magnifying device to look at your cervix, vagina and vulva. The procedure is usually done when the result of a Pap test is abnormal. If a problem is seen during colposcopy, a small sample of tissue (biopsy) may be taken from the cervix or from inside the opening of the cervix (endocervical canal). The sample is looked at under a microscope by the pathologist to determine the extent of the abnormality.